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ARTICLE 510--RECOGNIZANCE, BAIL AND COMMITMENT-- DETERMINATION OF APPLICATION FOR RECOGNIZANCE OR BAIL, ISSUANCE OF SECURING ORDERS, AND RELATED MATTERS Section 510.10 Securing order; when required. 510.15 Commitment of principal under sixteen. 510.20 Application for recognizance or bail; making and determination thereof in general. 510.30 Application for recognizance or bail; rules of law and criteria controlling determination. 510.40 Application for recognizance or bail; determination thereof, form of securing order and execution thereof. 510.50 Enforcement of securing order. S 510.10 Securing order; when required. When a principal, whose future court attendance at a criminal action or proceeding is or may be required, initially comes under the control of a court, such court must, by a securing order, either release him on his own recognizance, fix bail or commit him to the custody of the sheriff. When a securing order is revoked or otherwise terminated in the course of an uncompleted action or proceeding but the principal`s future court attendance still is or may be required and he is still under the control of a court, a new securing order must be issued. When the court revokes or otherwise terminates a securing order which committed the principal to the custody of the sheriff, the court shall give written notification to the sheriff of such revocation or termination of the securing order. S 510.15 Commitment of principal under sixteen. 1. When a principal who is under the age of sixteen is committed to the custody of the sheriff the court must direct that the principal be taken to and lodged in a place certified by the state division for youth as a juvenile detention facility for the reception of children. Where such a direction is made the sheriff shall deliver the principal in accordance therewith and such person shall although lodged and cared for in a juvenile detention facility continue to be deemed to be in the custody of the sheriff. No principal under the age of sixteen to whom the provisions of this section may apply shall be detained in any prison, jail, lockup, or other place used for adults convicted of a crime or under arrest and charged with the commission of a crime without the approval of the state division for youth in the case of each principal and the statement of its reasons therefor. The sheriff shall not be liable for any acts done to or by such principal resulting from negligence in the detention of and care for such principal, when the principal is not in the actual custody of the sheriff. 2. Except upon consent of the defendant or for good cause shown, in any case in which a new securing order is issued for a principal previously committed to the custody of the sheriff pursuant to this section, such order shall further direct the sheriff to deliver the principal from a juvenile detention facility to the person or place specified in the order. S 510.20 Application for recognizance or bail; making and determination thereof in general. 1. Upon any occasion when a court is required to issue a securing order with respect to a principal, or at any time when a principal is confined in the custody of the sheriff as a result of a previously issued securing order, he may make an application for recognizance or bail. 2. Upon such application, the principal must be accorded an opportunity to be heard and to contend that an order of recognizance or bail must or should issue, that the court should release him on his own recognizance rather than fix bail, and that if bail is fixed it should be in a suggested amount and form. S 510.30 Application for recognizance or bail; rules of law and criteria controlling determination. 1. Determinations of applications for recognizance or bail are not in all cases discretionary but are subject to rules, prescribed in article five hundred thirty and other provisions of law relating to specific kinds of criminal actions and proceedings, providing (a) that in some circumstances such an application must as a matter of law be granted, (b) that in others it must as a matter of law be denied and the principal committed to or retained in the custody of the sheriff, and (c) that in others the granting or denial thereof is a matter of judicial discretion. 2. To the extent that the issuance of an order of recognizance or bail and the terms thereof are matters of discretion rather than of law, an application is determined on the basis of the following factors and criteria: (a) With respect to any principal, the court must consider the kind and degree of control or restriction that is necessary to secure his court attendance when required. In determining that matter, the court must, on the basis of available information, consider and take into account: (i) The principal`s character, reputation, habits and mental condition; (ii) His employment and financial resources; and (iii) His family ties and the length of his residence if any in the community; and (iv) His criminal record if any; and (v) His record of previous adjudication as a juvenile delinquent, as retained pursuant to section 354.2 of the family court act, or, of pending cases where fingerprints are retained pursuant to section 306.1 of such act, or a youthful offender, if any; and (vi) His previous record if any in responding to court appearances when required or with respect to flight to avoid criminal prosecution; and (vii) If he is a defendant, the weight of the evidence against him in the pending criminal action and any other factor indicating probability or improbability of conviction; or, in the case of an application for bail or recognizance pending appeal, the merit or lack of merit of the appeal; and (viii) If he is a defendant, the sentence which may be or has been imposed upon conviction. (b) Where the principal is a defendant-appellant in a pending appeal from a judgment of conviction, the court must also consider the likelihood of ultimate reversal of the judgment. A determination that the appeal is palpably without merit alone justifies, but does not require, a denial of the application, regardless of any determination made with respect to the factors specified in paragraph (a). 3. When bail or recognizance is ordered, the court shall inform the principal, if he is a defendant charged with the commission of a felony, that the release is conditional and that the court may revoke the order of release and commit the principal to the custody of the sheriff in accordance with the provisions of subdivision two of section 530.60 of this chapter if he commits a subsequent felony while at liberty upon such order. S 510.40 Application for recognizance or bail; determination thereof, form of securing order and execution thereof. 1. An application for recognizance or bail must be determined by a securing order which either: (a) Grants the application and releases the principal on his own recognizance; or (b) Grants the application and fixes bail; or (c) Denies the application and commits the principal to, or retains him in, the custody of the sheriff. 2. Upon ordering that a principal be released on his own recognizance, the court must direct him to appear in the criminal action or proceeding involved whenever his attendance may be required and to render himself at all times amenable to the orders and processes of the court. If such principal is in the custody of the sheriff or at liberty upon bail at the time of the order, the court must direct that he be discharged from such custody or, as the case may be, that his bail be exonerated. 3. Upon the issuance of an order fixing bail, and upon the posting thereof, the court must examine the bail to determine whether it complies with the order. If it does, the court must, in the absence of some factor or circumstance which in law requires or authorizes disapproval thereof, approve the bail and must issue a certificate of release, authorizing the principal to be at liberty, and, if he is in the custody of the sheriff at the time, directing the sheriff to discharge him therefrom. If the bail fixed is not posted, or is not approved after being posted, the court must order that the principal be committed to the custody of the sheriff. S 510.50 Enforcement of securing order. When the attendance of a principal confined in the custody of the sheriff is required at the criminal action or proceeding at a particular time and place, the court may compel such attendance by directing the sheriff to produce him at such time and place. If the principal is at liberty on his own recognizance or on bail, his attendance may be achieved or compelled by various methods, including notification and the issuance of a bench warrant, prescribed by law in provisions governing such matters with respect to the particular kind of action or proceeding involved.
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