Law Term Definitions

Consolidated Laws of New York

A comprehensive digest of NY's criminal code

Laws of New York

This site contains the full online searchable text of the Alcoholic Beverage Control Law, the Criminal Procedure Law, the Penal Law and the Vehicle and Traffic Law for the State of New York. Also the U.S. Constitution, Civil Rights Law, Family Court Act and selected articles from the Navigation Law.
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Law Terms Defined / Legal Definitions

Terms are defined as per the law listed.
CPL= Criminal Procedure Law FCA= Family Court Act
PEN= Penal Law VTL= Vehicle Traffic Law
Columns sorted by selecting TERM or LAW. 510 terms currently listed.
TERM LAW ARTICLE
Access highway VTL 1 (100-a)
Ambulance VTL 1 (100-b)
Articulated bus VTL 1 (100-c)
Agricultural equipment VTL 1 (100-d)
Authorized emergency vehicle VTL 1 (101)
Automobile transporter VTL 1 (101-a)
Boat transporter VTL 1 (101-b)
B-train assembly VTL 1 (101-c)
Bicycle VTL 1 (102)
Bicycle lane VTL 1 (102-a)
Bicycle path VTL 1 (102-b)
Bureau VTL 1 (103)
Bus VTL 1 (104)
Business district VTL 1 (105)
Certificate of registration VTL 1 (105-a)
Circulatory roadway VTL 1 (106)
Civil defense emergency vehicle VTL 1 (106-a)
Classes of cities VTL 1 (107)
Commercial towing VTL 1 (107-b)
Commissioner VTL 1 (108)
Controlled-access highway VTL 1 (109)
Correction vehicle VTL 1 (109-a)
County emergency medical services vehicle VTL 1 (109-b)
Crosswalk VTL 1 (110)
Curb VTL 1 (111)
Department VTL 1 (112)
Department of transportation VTL 1 (112-a)
Driver VTL 1 (113)
Driveway VTL 1 (114)
Emergency operation VTL 1 (114-b)
Escort vehicle VTL 1 (114-c)
Electric personal assistive mobility device VTL 1 (114-d)
Fire vehicle VTL 1 (115-a)
Flagperson VTL 1 (115-b)
Emergency ambulance service vehicle VTL 1 (115-c)
Flammable liquid VTL 1 (116)
Gross weight VTL 1 (117)
Hazard vehicle VTL 1 (117-a)
Hazardous operation VTL 1 (117-b)
Hazardous materials emergency vehicle VTL 1 (117-c)
Blood delivery vehicle VTL 1 (117-d)
Highway VTL 1 (118)
House coach VTL 1 (119)
Ignition interlock device VTL 1 (119-a)
Inflatable restraint system VTL 1 (119-b)
Intersection VTL 1 (120)
Laned roadway VTL 1 (121)
Limited use automobile VTL 1 (121-a)
Limited use motorcycle VTL 1 (121-b)
Limited use vehicle VTL 1 (121-c)
Leased vehicle VTL 1 (121-d)
Livery VTL 1 (121-e)
Low speed vehicle VTL 1 (121-f)
Local authorities VTL 1 (122)
Maximum gross weight VTL 1 (122-a)
Maximum performance speed VTL 1 (122-b)
Mobile home or manufactured home VTL 1 (122-c)
Motorcycle VTL 1 (123)
Motor vehicles VTL 1 (125)
Off-highway motorcycle VTL 1 (125-a)
Omnibus VTL 1 (126)
Overhang VTL 1 (127)
Park or parking VTL 1 (129)
Parking area of a shopping center VTL 1 (129-a)
Parking lot VTL 1 (129-b)
Pedestrian VTL 1 (130)
Wheelchair VTL 1 (130-a)
Place of public assembly VTL 1 (131-a)
Police vehicle VTL 1 (132-a)
Private road VTL 1 (133)
Public highway VTL 1 (134)
Qualifying highway VTL 1 (134-a)
Radar detector VTL 1 (134-b)
Laser detector VTL 1 (134-c)
Railroad VTL 1 (135)
Railroad sign or signal VTL 1 (136)
Railroad train VTL 1 (137)
Rental vehicle VTL 1 (137-a)
Residence district VTL 1 (138)
Right of way VTL 1 (139)
Roadway VTL 1 (140)
In-line skate VTL 1 (140-a)
Roller skate VTL 1 (140-b)
Skate board VTL 1 (140-c)
Roundabout VTL 1 (140-d)
Safety zone VTL 1 (141)
Sani-vans VTL 1 (141-b)
Sanitation patrol vehicle VTL 1 (141-a)
School bus VTL 1 (142)
Semitrailer VTL 1 (143)
Shoulder VTL 1 (143-a)
Sidewalk VTL 1 (144)
Slope VTL 1 (144-a)
Snow emergency VTL 1 (144-b)
Stand or standing VTL 1 (145)
State expressway routes VTL 1 (145-a)
State interstate routes VTL 1 (145-b)
Snow emergency route VTL 1 (145-c)
Definition of snow tire VTL 1 (145-d)
Commercial motor vehicle VTL 509p (sub 1)
Gross vehicle weight rating VTL 509p (sub 2)
Commercial driver VTL 509p (sub 3)
Commercial motor carrier VTL 509p (sub 4)
Railroad grade crossing VTL 1 (135-a)
Waste collection vehicle VTL 1 (159-a)
Offense PEN 10.00 (sub 1)
Violation PEN 10.00 (sub 3)
Misdemeanor PEN 10.00 (sub 4)
Felony PEN 10.00 (sub 5)
Crime PEN 10.00 (sub 6)
Person PEN 10.00 (sub 7)
Possess PEN 10.00 (sub 8)
Physical injury PEN 10.00 (sub 9)
Serious physical injury PEN 10.00 (sub 10)
Deadly physical force PEN 10.00 (sub 11)
Deadly weapon PEN 10.00 (sub 12)
Dangerous instrument PEN 10.00 (sub 13)
Gambling PEN 225.00 (sub 2)
Public servant PEN 10.00 (sub 15)
Juror PEN 10.00 (sub 16)
Benefit PEN 10.00 (sub 17)
Juvenile offender PEN 10.00 (sub 18)
Child day car provider PEN 10.00 (sub 19)
Drug trafficking felony PEN 10.00 (sub 21)
Act PEN 15.00 (sub 1)
Voluntary act PEN 15.00 (sub 2)
Omission PEN 15.00 (sub 3)
Conduct PEN 15.00 (sub 4)
To act PEN 15.00 (sub 5)
Culpable mental state PEN 15.00 (sub 6)
Intentionally PEN 15.05 (sub 1)
Knowingly PEN 15.05 (sub 2)
Recklessly PEN 15.05 (sub 3)
Criminal negligence PEN 15.05 (sub 4)
Defense PEN 25.00 (sub 1)
Affirmative defense PEN 25.00 (sub 2)
Duress PEN 40.00
Entrapment PEN 40.05
Renunciation PEN 40.10
Mental disease or defect PEN 40.15
Abortional act PEN 125.05 (sub 2)
Justifiable abortional act PEN 125.05 (sub 3)
Community gun PEN 115.20
Immediate family PEN 120.40
Sexual intercourse PEN 130.00 (sub 1)
Anal sexual conduct PEN 130.00 (sub 2b)
Sexual contact PEN 130.00 (sub 3)
Married PEN 130.00 (sub 4)
Mentally disabled PEN 130.00 (sub 5)
Mentally incapacitated PEN 130.00 (sub 6)
Physically helpless PEN 130.00 (sub 7)
Forcible compulsion PEN 130.00 (sub 8)
Foreign object PEN 130.00 (sub 9)
Sexual conduct PEN 130.00 (sub 10)
Aggravated sexual contact PEN 130.00 (sub 11)
Health care provider PEN 130.00 (sub 12)
Mental health care provider PEN 130.00 (sub 13)
Restrain PEN 135.00 (sub 1)
Abduct PEN 135.00 (sub 2)
Relative PEN 135.00 (sub 3)
Premises PEN 140.00 (sub 1)
Building PEN 140.00 (sub 2)
Dwelling PEN 140.00 (sub 3)
Night PEN 140.00 (sub 4)
Enter or remain unlawfully PEN 140.00 (sub 5)
Property of another PEN 145.13
Oral sexual conduct PEN 130.00 (sub 2a)
Property PEN 155.00 (sub 1)
Obtain PEN 155.00 (sub 2)
Deprive PEN 155.00 (sub 3)
Appropriate PEN 155.00 (sub 4)
Owner PEN 155.00 (sub 5)
Secret scientific material PEN 155.00 (sub 6)
Credit card PEN 155.00 (sub 7)
Debit card PEN 155.00 (sub 7a)
Public benefit card PEN 155.00 (sub 7b)
Access device PEN 155.00 (sub 7c)
Service PEN 155.00 (sub 8)
Cable television service PEN 155.00 (sub 9)
Computer PEN 156.00 (sub 1)
Computer program PEN 156.00 (sub 2)
Computer data PEN 156.00 (sub 3)
Computer service PEN 156.00 (sub 4)
Computer material PEN 156.00 (sub 5)
Computer network PEN 156.00 (sub 6)
Access PEN 156.00 (sub 7)
Without authorization PEN 156.00 (sub 8)
Fraudulent welfare act PEN 158.00 (sub 1b)
Public assistance benefits PEN 158.00 (sub 1c)
Written instrument PEN 170.00 (sub 1)
Complete written instrument PEN 170.00 (sub 2)
Incomplete written instrument PEN 170.00 (sub 3)
Falsely make PEN 170.00 (sub 4)
Falsely complete PEN 170.00 (sub 5)
Falsely alter PEN 170.00 (sub 6)
Forged instrument PEN 170.00 (sub 7)
Electronic access device PEN 170.00 (sub 8)
Enterprise PEN 175.00 (sub 1)
Business record PEN 175.00 (sub 2)
Insurance policy PEN 176.00 (sub 1)
Statement PEN 176.00 (sub 2)
Personal insurance PEN 176.00 (sub 4)
Health plan PEN 177.00 (sub 1)
Prescription medication or device PEN 178.00 (sub 1)
Prescription PEN 178.00 (sub 2)
Criminal diversion act PEN 178.00 (sub 3)
Labor official PEN 180.10
Sports contest PEN 180.00 (sub 1)
Sports participant PEN 180.00 (sub 2)
Sports official PEN 180.00 (sub 3)
Pari-mutuel betting PEN 180.00 (sub 4)
Pari-mutuel horse race PEN 180.00 (sub 5)
Residential mortgage loan PEN 187.00 (sub 2)
Residential real property PEN 187.00 (sub 3)
Residential mortgage fraud PEN 187.00 (sub 4)
Personal identifying information PEN 190.77 (sub 1)
Electronic signature PEN 190.77 (sub 2a)
Personal identification number PEN 190.77 (sub 2b)
Member of armed forces PEN 190.77 (sub 2c)
Check PEN 190.77 (sub 1)
Representative drawer PEN 190.77 (sub 3)
Pass PEN 190.77 (sub 5)
Insufficient funds PEN 190.77 (sub 7)
Drawer PEN 190.77 (sub 2)
Utter PEN 190.77 (sub 4)
Funds PEN 190.77 (sub 6)
Party officer PEN 200.40
Detention facility PEN 205.00 (sub 1)
Custody PEN 205.00 (sub 2)
Contraband PEN 205.00 (sub 3)
Dangerous contraband PEN 205.00 (sub 4)
Oath PEN 210.00 (sub 1)
Swear PEN 210.00 (sub 2)
Testimony PEN 210.00 (sub 3)
Oath required by law PEN 210.00 (sub 4)
Swear falsely PEN 210.00 (sub 5)
Attesting officer PEN 210.00 (sub 6)
Jurat PEN 210.00 (sub 7)
Physical evidence PEN 215.35
Official proceeding PEN 215.35
Violent felony offense PEN 70.02
Second violent felony offender PEN 70.04
Second felony offender PEN 70.06
Persistent violent felony offender PEN 70.08
Persistent felony offender PEN 70.10
Contest of chance PEN 225.00 (sub 1)
Player PEN 225.00 (sub 3)
Advance gambling activity PEN 225.00 (sub 4)
Profit from gambling activity PEN 225.00 (sub 5)
Something of value PEN 225.00 (sub 6)
Gambling device PEN 225.00 (sub 7)
Coin operated gambling device PEN 225.00 (sub 7a)
Slot machine PEN 225.00 (sub 8)
Bookmaking PEN 225.00 (sub 9)
Lottery PEN 225.00 (sub 10)
Policy PEN 225.00 (sub 11)
Unlawful PEN 225.00 (sub 12)
Authorized gaming establishment PEN 225.00 (sub 13)
Authorized gaming operator PEN 225.00 (sub 14)
Casino gaming PEN 225.00 (sub 15)
Cash equivalent PEN 225.00 (sub 16)
Cheques PEN 225.00 (sub 17)
Class I gaming PEN 225.00 (sub 18)
Class III gaming PEN 225.00 (sub 19)
Compact PEN 225.00 (sub 20)
Gaming equipment or device PEN 225.00 (sub 21)
Gaming regulatory authority PEN 225.00 (sub 22)
Gaming compact PEN 225.00 (sub 20)
Sell PEN 225.00 (sub 24)
State gaming agency PEN 225.00 (sub 25)
Unfair gaming equipment PEN 225.00 (sub 26)
Unlawful gaming property PEN 225.00 (sub 27)
Video lottery gaming PEN 225.00 (sub 28)
Voucher PEN 225.00 (sub 29)
Act of terrorism PEN 490.05 (sub 1)
Material support or resources PEN 490.05 (sub 2)
Biological agent PEN 490.05 (sub 5)
Toxin PEN 490.05 (sub 6)
Delivery system PEN 490.05 (sub 7)
Vector PEN 490.05 (sub 8)
Biological weapon PEN 490.05 (sub 9)
Chemical weapon PEN 490.05 (sub 10)
Precursor PEN 490.05 (sub 11)
Toxic chemical PEN 490.05 (sub 13)
Select chemical agent PEN 490.05 (sub 15)
Select biological agent PEN 490.05 (sub 16)
Chemical weapons convention PEN 490.05 (sub 17)
Proceeds PEN 480.00 (sub 3)
Substituted proceeds PEN 480.00 (sub 4)
Instrumentality of a felony controlled substance offense PEN 480.00 (sub 5)
Real property instrumentality of a crime PEN 480.00 (sub 6)
Monetary instrument PEN 470.00 (sub 1)
Conducts PEN 470.00 (sub 2)
Transaction PEN 470.00 (sub 3)
Criminal conduct PEN 470.00 (sub 4)
Specified criminal conduct PEN 470.00 (sub 5)
Financial institution PEN 470.00 (sub 6)
Financial transaction PEN 470.00 (sub 7)
Represented PEN 470.00 (sub 8)
Law enforcement officer PEN 470.00 (sub 9)
Scheme PEN 496.01
Medical Marihuana PEN 179.00
Laser PEN 240.76 (3a)
FAA PEN 240.76 (3a)
Machine-gun PEN 265.00 (sub 1)
Firearm silencer PEN 265.00 (sub 2)
Firearm PEN 265.00 (sub 3)
Switchblade knife PEN 265.00 (sub 4)
Gravity knife PEN 265.00 (sub 5)
Pilum ballistic knife PEN 265.00 (sub 5a)
Metal knuckle knife PEN 265.00 (sub 5b)
Automatic knife PEN 265.00 (sub 5c)
Dispose of PEN 265.00 (sub 6)
Deface PEN 265.00 (sub 7)
Dealer in firearms PEN 265.00 (sub 9)
Licensing officer PEN 265.00 (sub 10)
Rifle PEN 265.00 (sub 11)
Shotgun PEN 265.00 (sub 12)
Cane sword PEN 265.00 (sub 13)
Antique firearm PEN 265.00 (sub 10)
Chuka stick PEN 265.00 (sub 14)
Loaded firearm PEN 265.00 (sub 15)
Electronic dart gun PEN 265.00 (sub 15a)
Kung Fu star PEN 265.00 (sub 15)
Electronic stun gun PEN 265.00 (sub 15c)
Serious offense PEN 265.00 (sub 17)
Armor piercing ammunition PEN 265.00 (sub 18)
Disguised gun PEN 265.00 (sub 20)
Semiautomatic PEN 265.00 (sub 21)
Assault weapon PEN 265.00 (sub 22)
Person in need of supervision FCA 712 (a)
Detention FCA 712 (b)
Secure detention facility FCA 712 (c)
Non-secure detention facility FCA 712 (d)
Fact-finding hearing FCA 712 (e)
Dispositional hearing FCA 712 (f)
Aggravated circumstances FCA 712 (g)
Permanency hearing FCA 712 (h)
Diversion services FCA 712 (i)
Substance use disorder FCA 712 (j)
Peace officer CPL 2.10
Accusatory instrument CPL 1.20 (sub 1)
Local criminal court accusatory instrument CPL 1.20 (sub 2)
Indictment CPL 1.20 (sub 3)
Superior court information CPL 1.20 (sub 3a)
Information CPL 1.20 (sub 4)
Simplified traffic information CPL 1.20 (sub 5b)
Simplified parks information CPL 1.20 (sub 5c)
Simplified environmental conservation information CPL 1.20 (sub 5d)
Simplified information CPL 1.20 (sub 5a)
Prosecutor's information CPL 1.20 (sub 6)
Misdemeanor complaint CPL 1.20 (sub 7)
Felony complaint CPL 1.20 (sub 8)
Arraignment CPL 1.20 (sub 9)
Plea CPL 1.20(sub 10)
Trial CPL 1.20 (sub 11)
Verdict CPL 1.20 (sub 12)
Conviction CPL 1.20 (sub 13)
Sentence CPL 1.20 (sub 14)
Judgment CPL 1.20 (sub 15)
Criminal action CPL 1.20 (sub 16)
Commencement of criminal action CPL 1.20 (sub 17)
Criminal proceeding CPL 1.20 (sub 18)
Criminal court CPL 10.10 (sub 1)
Superior court CPL 10.10 (sub 2)
Local criminal court CPL 10.10 (sub 3)
Intermediate appellate court CPL 1.20 (sub 22)
Judge CPL 1.20 (sub 23)
Trial jurisdiction CPL 1.20 (sub 24)
Preliminary jurisdiction CPL 1.20 (sub 25)
Appearance ticket CPL 1.20 (sub 26)
Summons CPL 1.20 (sub 27)
Warrant of arrest CPL 1.20 (sub 28)
Superior court warrant of arrest CPL 1.20 (sub 29)
Bench warrant CPL 1.20 (sub 30)
Prosecutor CPL 1.20 (sub 31)
District attorney CPL 1.20 (sub 32)
Police officer CPL 1.20 (sub 34)
Geographical area of employment CPL 1.20 (sub 34a)
Commitment to the custody of the sheriff CPL 1.20 (sub 35)
County CPL 1.20 (sub 36)
Lesser included offense CPL 1.20 (sub 37)
Petty offense CPL 1.20 (sub 39)
Evidence in chief CPL 1.20 (sub 40)
Armed felony CPL 1.20 (sub 41)
Judicial hearing officer CPL 1.20 (sub 43)
Youth CPL 720.10 (sub 1)
Eligible youth CPL 720.10 (sub 2)
Youthful offender finding CPL 720.10 (sub 4)
Youth offender sentence CPL 720.10 (sub 5)
Youthful offender adjudication CPL 720.10 (sub 6)
Submission of a count CPL 300.30 (sub 1)
Consecutive counts CPL 300.30 (sub 2)
Concurrent counts CPL 300.30 (sub 3)
Inclusory concurrent counts CPL 300.30 (sub 4)
Inconsistent counts CPL 300.30 (sub 5)
Single judge trial CPL 340.10 (sub 2)
Jury Trial CPL 340.10 (sub 3)
Principal CPL 500.10 (sub 1)
Release on own recognizance CPL 500.10 (sub 2)
Fix bail CPL 500.10 (sub 3)
Securing order CPL 500.10 (sub 5)
Order of recognizance or bail CPL 500.10 (sub 6)
Application for recognizance or bail CPL 500.10 (sub 7)
Post bail CPL 500.10 (sub 8)
Bail CPL 500.10 (sub 9)
Cash bail CPL 500.10 (sub 10)
Obligor CPL 500.10 (sub 11)
Surety CPL 500.10 (sub 12)
Bail bond CPL 500.10 (sub 13)
Appearance bond CPL 500.10 (sub 14)
Surety bond CPL 500.10 (sub 15)
Insurance company bail bond CPL 500.10 (sub 16)
Secured bail bond CPL 500.10 (sub 17)
Partially secured bail bond CPL 500.10 (sub 18)
Unsecured bail bond CPL 500.10 (sub 19)
Eavesdropping warrant CPL 700.05 (sub 2)
Intercepted communication CPL 700.05 (sub 3)
Justice CPL 700.05 (sub 4)
Applicant CPL 700.05 (sub 5)
Law enforcement officer CPL 700.05 (sub 6)
Exigent circumstances CPL 700.05 (sub 7)
Video surveillance CPL 700.05 (sub 9)
Video surveillance warrant CPL 700.05 (sub 10)
Pen register CPL 705.00 (sub 1)
Trap and trace device CPL 705.00 (sub 2)
Law enforcement agency CPL 705.00 (sub 4)
Defendant CPL 710.10 (sub 1)
Evidence CPL 710.10 (sub 2)
Potential testimony CPL 710.10 (sub 3)

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